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Review | Special issue | Vol 101, No. 2, 2020, pp.383-406
Published online, 28th August, 2019
DOI: 10.3987/REV-19-SR(F)3
Synthesis of Sphingosine-Related Azetidine Alkaloids, Penaresidins: Construction of Highly Substituted Azetidine Rings

Tomoya Fujiwara and Takayuki Yakura*

*Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan


Penaresidin A and B are sphingosine-related natural products that contain a 2,3,4-trisubstituted azetidine ring and a long alkyl side chain. Stereoselective construction of the trisubstituted azetidine ring is a crucial step in the synthesis of penaresidins, and all the currently reported syntheses have been accomplished by SN2-type cyclization of a precursor having a 1-amino-2,3-diol structure with three continuous stereocenters. This cyclization is strongly influenced by the configurations of the vicinal amino alcohol moieties of the precursors. This review focuses on the SN2-type cyclizations that are used to construct the trisubstituted azetidine ring in penaresidin synthesis.