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Review | Regular issue | Vol 87, No. 2, 2013, pp.275-301
Published online, 7th December, 2012
DOI: 10.3987/REV-12-758
Development of Carbazole Dyes for Efficient Molecular Photovoltaics

Nagatoshi Koumura* and Kohjiro Hara

*Research Center for Photovoltaic Technologies, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan


Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs), which are one of the promising molecular photovoltaics, have been attracting considerable attention because the electrochemical solar cells exhibit high performance and potential for low-cost production. Dyes as photosensitizers are one of the most important components influencing the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs, because a photo-sensitizer determines the photoresponse range of the DSSC and initiates the primary steps of the photon absorption and the subsequent electron transfer process. Generally, Ru-polypyridyl-complex sensitizers, developed by Prof. Grätzel and coworkers, have been employed for efficient DSSCs. In addition to conventional Ru-complex sensitizers, metal-free organic dyes have also been utilized as sensitizers in DSSCs, and the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs based on organic-dye sensitizers has been improved relative to earlier studies of DSSCs with organic dyes. We have designed and synthesized alkyl-functionalized carbazole dyes to improve both solar-cell performance and long-term stability of the solar cells. Here, we report detailed syntheses of several sensitizers based on carbazole and carbazole derivatives donor part, and photovoltaic performances of DSSCs with these dyes.