Online article for Non-subscribers

Pay per view

Heterocycles has a pay-per-view service for Non-subscribers.
You will be able to directly purchase the full text article through PayPal.
Your purchased Paper can be downloaded after the payment is completed.
An e-mail will be sent the URL to download the paper.
If you have any questions, please contact:

Price: ¥ 4,400 (Yen only)
Period: This Article can be accessed for 7 days.

Review | Regular issue | Vol 65, No. 2, 2005, pp.411-449
Published online, 10th December, 2004
DOI: 10.3987/REV-04-587
Some Aspects of the Willgerodt-Kindler Reaction and Connected Reactions

Giovanni Purrello

*Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy


This review presents a discussion, in near chronological order, of the course of Willgerodt–Kindler reactions that occur under different experimental conditions. It is possible to isolate the various intermediates postulated in our initial working hypotheses of these reactions, allowing us to clarify inter alia the course of the isomerization process. Of note, we show that room temperature reactions follows the same reaction pathway as those synthesized under more severe experimental conditions, and this observation allows us to comprehend the chemism of the initial steps of the process.