Most Cited Articles

The Top 20 Cited Articles

The most cited articles are updated on a monthly basis and available as Last 3 Years. Citation data is obtained through CrossRef's Cited-Linking service.

Note: The Top 20 Citations are published across all volumes.

Short Paper | Regular issue | Vol 91, No. 9, 2015, pp.1809-1815
Published online: 4 August, 2015
DOI: 10.3987/COM-15-13285
Viridobrunnines A and B, Antimicrobial Phenoxazinone Alkaloids from A Soil Associated Streptomyces sp.

Xiu Mei Zhang, Xu Liu, Zhe Wang, Zhen Hua Tian, and Wei Dong Xie*

*Department of Pharmacy, Marine College, Shangdong University at Weihai, Wenhua Xilu 180, Weihai 264209, China


Chemical investigation of a Streptomyces sp. strain designated A1302 isolated from soil sample led to the discovery of two new phenoxazinone alkaloids, viridobrunnines A and B (1 - 2), along with two known analogues exfoliazone (3) and chandrananimycin D (4). Their structures were established by means of spectroscopic methods. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of isolated compounds was assayed. Viridobrunnine B (2) exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with inhibition zone from 13 mm to 15 mm.

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Review | Special issue | Vol 28, No. 1, 1989, pp.489-519
Published online: 1 January, 1970
DOI: 10.3987/REV-88-SR1
Recent Developments of Free-Radical Substitutions of Heteroaromatic Bases

Francesco Minisci,* Elena Vismara, and Francesca Fontana

*Dipartimento di Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy


The most recent mechanistic and synthetic aspects of the substitution of protonated heteroaromatic bases by nucleophilic carbon-centered radicals are reviewed. From mechanistic point of view the following aspects are discussed; i ) Structurereactivity relationship; i i ) Rearomatization of the radical adducts; iii) Solvent and isotope effects; iv) Overlap area with ionic reactions. The synthetic developments concern the following topics: i) Selectivity with carbonyl radicals; ii) Alkyl iodides as sources of alkyl radicals; iii) Alkylation by carboxylic acids; iv) Vinylation by olefins; v) Oxyalkylation by ethers; vi) Catalytic processes; vii) Substitution with strongly nucleophilic radicals.

Review | Special issue | Vol 49, No. 1, 1998, pp.531-556
Published online: 1 January, 1970
DOI: 10.3987/REV-98-SR2
Survey of Oxygenated 2,11-Cyclized Cembranoids of Marine Origin

Patrick Bernardelli and Leo A. Paquette*

*Evans Chemical Laboratories, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, U.S.A.


The structure, source, and biological activities of the many known members of the four classes of oxygenated 2,11-cyclized cembranoid natural products are compiled in tabular form. The cladiellins, briarellins, asbestinins, and sarcodictyins have been purposefully organized to highlight biological activity interrelationships.

Review | Special issue | Vol 40, No. 1, 1995, pp.477-500
Published online: 1 January, 1970
DOI: 10.3987/REV-94-SR2
Cyclic Carboxylic Imide Structures as Structure Elements of High Stability. Novel Developments in Perylene Dye Chemistry

Heinz Langhals

*Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität München, Karlstrasse 23, D-80333 München, Germany


Cyclic carboxylic imides are structure elements in aromatic heterocycles with high persistency. Their attachment to perylene leads to the perylene dyes; the synthesis and unique properties of the dyes are reported and discussed. An extension of the principle to other aromatics is made.

Paper | Special issue | Vol 52, No. 3, 2000, pp.1315-1328
Published online: 1 January, 1970
DOI: 10.3987/COM-99-S143
A Highly Efficient Synthetic Route to (-)-Furaquinocin C

Amos B. Smith, III*, José Pérez Sestelo, and Peter G. Dormer

*Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia, PA 19104, U.S.A.


The first total synthesis of (-)-furaquinocin C, a member of the furaquinocin family of cytotoxic antibiotics, has been achieved. Central features of the successful synthetic strategy include Diels-Alder construction of the furanonaphthoquinic skeleton and sequential cuprate-mediated conjugate additions to an α,β-unsaturated lactone. The synthetic route proved remarkably efficient requiring only six steps from (R)-(+)-angelicalactone, and utilizing a mere four reaction vessels. This stereospecific construction of (-)-furaquinocin C confirms earlier assignments of absolute and relative stereochemistry for the furaquinocins and also constitutes completion of a formal synthesis of (-)-furaquinocin F.

Review | Special issue | Vol 56, No. 1-2, 2002, pp.633-692
Published online: 1 January, 1970
DOI: 10.3987/REV-01-SR(K)2
Recent Progress in the Chemistry of Polyacylated Anthocyanins as Flower Color Pigments

Toshio Honda* and Norio Saito

*Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8501, Japan


It is recognized that the bluing effect and stabilization of flower colors will remarkably depend on the number of aromatic acids presented in the polyacylated anthocyanins. Although polyacyl functions would be considered to contribute strongly in the bluing of the flower color at the early stage of the investigation of polyacylated anthocyanin chemistry, the stabilization of flower color is considered to be another important objective by the presence of these aromatic acids at the present time. Since aromatic acids in the polyacylated anthocyanins are obviously linked with the sugar residues through the ester bonds, the polyacylated anthocyanins are classified into seven types by the substitution pattern of acyl functions, and the effect of the stacking structures of polyacyl anthocyanins on the stabilization of the flower color depending on the substitution pattern of acyl groups will be discussed. The physicochemical properties (NMR, UV-VIS spectra) in relation to the stability of the anthocyanins will also be discussed.

Short Paper | Regular issue | Vol 96, No. 12, 2018, pp.2126-2134
Published online: 20 December, 2018
DOI: 10.3987/COM-18-14002
Multigram-Scale and Column Chromatography-Free Synthesis of L-Azetidine-2-carboxylic Acid for the Synthesis of Nicotianamine and Its Derivatives

Tomohiro Takaishi, Kyosuke Wakisaka, Christopher J Vavricka, Hiromasa Kiyota, and Minoru Izumi*

*Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan


Multigram-scale synthesis of L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid from L-aspartic acid was achieved in 13 conventional synthetic steps, without the need for purification by silica-gel column chromatography and expensive reagents. Nicotianamine and its fluorescence-labeled derivatives could be obtained from this synthetic strategy.

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Communication | Regular issue | Vol 94, No. 3, 2017, pp.441-447
Published online: 17 March, 2017
DOI: 10.3987/COM-16-13642
Stereoselective Aza-Henry Reaction of 3-Nitro-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolones with N-Boc-Aldimines under the Catalysis of Chiral Ammonium Betaines

Daisuke Uraguchi, Masahiro Torii, Kohsuke Kato, and Takashi Ooi*

*Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM) and Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan


A highly enantioselective aza-Henry reaction between 3-nitro-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolones and N-Boc-aldimines was developed by using a chiral ammonium betaine as a catalyst. This protocol provides a direct synthetic method for accessing hydroquinoline derivatives possessing a tetrasubstituted stereogenic center at the C3 position and casts light on the utility of the α-functionalization of dihydroquinolones.

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Paper | Regular issue | Vol 26, No. 5, 1987, pp.1257-1262
Published online: 1 January, 1970
DOI: 10.3987/R-1987-05-1257
Addition of Phthalimidonitrene to Substituted Indoles

Perumal Raja Kumar

*Department of Chemistry, University of Madras, Madras 600 025, India


The aziridine 2a obtained by the addition of phthalimidonitrene to N-phenylsulphonylindole was treated with methanolic potassium hydroxide to give desulphonated indole and quinazoline. The aziridine 2b and 2c derived from phthalimidonitrene and 2-methylindole or 2-phenylindole were treated with dimsyl anion to give 2-methylquinazoline and 2-phenylquinazoline. However the nitrene adducts 2d and 2e derived from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole and 1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole afford carbazole and 1-hydroxycarbazole under similar conditions. Hydrazinolysis of the nitrene adducts-2a, b, c, d and e regenerated the parent indole.

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Review | Regular issue | Vol 91, No. 2, 2015, pp.239-264
Published online: 27 January, 2015
DOI: 10.3987/REV-14-811
Synthesis of Triazole, Indole, and Five or Six-Membered Saturated Heterocyclic Compounds

Yasunari Monguchi,* Yoshinari Sawama, and Hironao Sajiki*

*Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigakunishi, Gifu 501-1196, Japan


Heterogeneously-catalyzed synthetic methods for the preparation of 1,2,3-triazoles, indolines, indoles, and saturated heterocyclic compounds, such as piperidine and pyrrolidine, are demonstrated. Triazoles are intermolecularly synthesized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of alkynes with azides using heterogeneous copper catalysts. Solvent-free triazole syntheses are also described. Inter- and intramolecular annulations as indole syntheses are summarized; e.g., a palladium on carbon (Pd/C)-catalyzed YamanakaLarock method affords 2- or 2,3-substituted indoles from 2-iodoaniline derivatives and mono- or di-substituted alkynes; an intramolecular Pd/C-catalyzed BuchwaldHartwig reaction of 2-bromophenethylamine derivatives temperature-dependently affords indolines or indoles. Pd/C can also catalyze an intermolecular aromatic amination of bromoarenes with indoles to generate the corresponding N-arylindoles. The application of the hydrogenation technology using 10% Pd/C, 10% rhodium on carbon (Rh/C), or 10% ruthenium on carbon (Ru/C) as a catalyst is finally introduced for the synthesis of indole by the intramolecular hydrogenative N-alkylation of 2-cyanomethylaniline and piperidine, pyrrolidine, and tetrahydrofuran derivatives by the arene hydrogenation of pyrridine, pyrrole, and furan derivatives under relatively mild conditions, respectively.

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Note | Regular issue | Vol 57, No. 2, 2002, pp.353-356
Published online: 1 January, 1970
DOI: 10.3987/COM-01-9410
The Crystal and Molecular Structure of 2,3,5,6-Tetraphenyl-1,4-dithiin

Ian W. Jones and Patrick E. Hoggard*

*Department of Chemistry, Santa Clara University, 500 El Camino Real, Santa Clara, California 95053-270, U.S.A.


The phenyl rings in 2,3,5,6-tetraphenyl-1,4-dithiin have neither of the two most obvious configurations: all perpendicular to the dithiin ring (paddlewheel), or parallel to the dithiin double bonds (butterfly). Instead, there are two phenyls in each orientation.

Note | Regular issue | Vol 71, No. 10, 2007, pp.2243-2248
Published online: 15 June, 2007
DOI: 10.3987/COM-07-11106
Asymmetric Formal Synthesis of (-)-Formoterol and (-)-Tamsulosin

Yongeun Kim, Lae-Sung Kang, Hyun-Joon Ha,* Seung Whan Ko, and Won Koo Lee*

*Department of Chemistry, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin, 449-791, Korea


Biologically important (2R)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanes consisted in commercial drugs including (R,R)-formoterol, and (R)-tamsulosin were prepared from chiral (2R)-aziridine-2-carboxylate without any chromatographic separation. Key reactions include regio- and stereoselective ring opening reaction of aziridin-2-yl-phenylmethanol and subsequent cyclization toward enantiopure 4,5-disubastitued oxazolidin-2-ones as synthetic intermediates.

Paper | Special issue | Vol 93, No. 2, 2016, pp.705-713
Published online: 6 January, 2016
DOI: 10.3987/COM-15-S(T)60
Facile Synthesis of 5- to 7-Membered Benzolactam Compounds via Strongly Facilitated Electrophilic Aromtic Substitution Reaction

Hiroaki Kurouchi, Yuko Otani, and Tomohiko Ohwada*

*Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan


We employed our system to activate aromatic ring-tethered carbamate compounds with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid to obtain benzolactams with 5- to 7-membered rings, and examined the substrate scope and limitations of this activation method. In 5-membered ring formation, a halogen group on the aromatic ring did not greatly affect the reaction yield, but other electron-donating groups inhibited the cyclization reaction, and various side-reactions occurred. In 7-membered ring formation, eletron-donating groups on aromatic ring promoted the cyclization reaction, but cyclization of electron-deficient aromatic rings did not proceed well. The 6-membered ring formation reaction showed the greatest substrate generality.

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Communication | Special issue | Vol 88, No. 1, 2014, pp.193-199
Published online: 31 July, 2013
DOI: 10.3987/COM-13-S(S)43
Palladium-Catalyzed Borylation of Aryl Iodides with 2,3-Dihydro-1H-benzo[d][1,3,2]diazaboroles

Miki Murata,* Nobuyoshi Hirai, Michihiro Okuyama, Takeshi Namikoshi, and Shinji Watanabe

*Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, Koen-cho 165, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507, Japan


The palladium-catalyzed borylation of aryl iodides with 2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[d][1,3,2]diazaboroles was achieved. The mild reaction conditions employed allowed for the inclusion of a wide variety of functional groups in aryl iodides to be tolerated. Additionally, the borylated products can be transformed into the corresponding boronic acids or their esters under acidic conditions.

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Paper | Regular issue | Vol 85, No. 2, 2012, pp.365-381
Published online: 22 December, 2011
DOI: 10.3987/COM-11-12392
Hydrolysable Tannins Isolated from Syzygium aromaticum: Structure of a New C-Glucosidic Ellagitannin and Spectral Features of Tannins with a Tergalloyl Group

Li-Ming Bao, _ Eerdunbayaer, Akiko Nozaki, Eizo Takahashi, Keinosuke Okamoto, Hideyuki Ito, and Tsutomu Hatano*

*Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530, Japan


Eighteen hydrolysable tannins, including a new C-glucosidic tannin named aromatinin A (1), were isolated from an aqueous acetone extract of dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum Merr. et Perry. We determined that 1 had a gallic acid C-glucoside structure, based on the spectral data and synthesis from casuarinin (18) and gallic acid (20). This is a rare example of hydrolysable tannins with gallic acid C-glucoside structure. We also report the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral features of syzyginin A (2), bicornin (3), and platycaryanin A (4), which were also isolated from S. aromaticum, based on their structures with a tergalloyl group or its depsidone form. The remaining known compounds were identified as alunusnin A (5), rugosin C (6), 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (7), 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (8), tellimagrandin II (9), casuarictin (10), heterophylliin D (11), rugosin D (12), rugosin F (13), euprostin A (14), 1,2-di-O-galloyl-3-O-digalloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexa- hydroxydiphenoy-β-D-glucose (15), alienanin B (16), squarrosanin A (17), and 18. The antifungal effects of hydrolysable tannins, 9, 12, and 18 against Candida strains are also described.

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Paper | Special issue | Vol 99, No. 2, 2019, pp.1128-1144
Published online: 5 February, 2019
DOI: 10.3987/COM-18-S(F)84
Synthesis of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands for Site-Selective C-H Alkylation by Cooperative Nickel/Aluminum Catalysis

Shogo Okumura, Tomohiro Ebara, Kazuhiko Semba, and Yoshiaki Nakao*

*Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoudai-katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan


We report synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), N,N'-bis{2,6-bis(3,5-dialkylphenyl)methy-4-methoxyphenyl}imidazol-2-ylidenes {alkyl = ethyl (L2) or n-propyl (L3)} and their applications to nickel-catalyzed C–H alkylation reactions of arenes. They showed site-selectivities and/or yields higher than NHCs used previously for the reactions.

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Short Paper | Special issue | Vol 101, No. 2, 2020, pp.726-737
Published online: 23 October, 2019
DOI: 10.3987/COM-19-S(F)52
Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Pyrilamine Derivatives as Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

Seiya Hiranaka, Mayumi Arata, Akiko Nakata, Akiko Tanaka, Yoshinobu Hashizume, Norio Kudo, Akihiro Ito, Minoru Yoshida, Shinichi Uesato, Yasuo Nagaoka, and Takaaki Sumiyoshi*

*Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680, Japan


For the study on the structure-activity relationship of pyrilamine-based histone deacetylase inhibitor 1, we focused on the structures of its benzyl and dimethylamino groups. Of the synthesized novel pyrilamine derivatives 27, compound 2 enhanced potency against hERG inhibition, as well as decreased molecular weight and topological polar surface area.

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Short Paper | Regular issue | Vol 87, No. 4, 2013, pp.861-867
Published online: 20 February, 2013
DOI: 10.3987/COM-13-12667
Aculeatusquinones A-D, Novel Metabolites from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus aculeatus

Li Chen,* Wei-Wei Zhang, Qiu-Hong Zheng, Qin-Ying Liu, Ping Zhong, Xiao Hu, Zhe-Xiang Fang, and Qi-Qing Zhang*

*Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology & College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, No. 523, Gongye Road, Fuzhou City, 350002, China


Four new aculeatusquinones A–D (14) and five known compounds, (5aS,6S,7S)-3,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-1,4,6,9-tetramethyl-6,7-dihydro-5aH-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxepine-8,11-dione (5), 3,8-dihydroxy-1,4,6,9-tetramethyldibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxepin-11-one (6), 4-O-demethylbarbatic acid (7), atraric acid (8), and 2,5-dimethyl-1,3-benzenediol (9), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus aculeatus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses. Two new compounds (2 and 4) showed cytotoxic effects on the HL-60, K562, and A-549 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 5.4 μM to 76.1 μM.

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Paper | Regular issue | Vol 96, No. 8, 2018, pp.1410-1420
Published online: 26 July, 2018
DOI: 10.3987/COM-18-13941
Benzylic sp3 C-H Functionalization Reaction of 2-Methylazaarenes Catalyzed by Pepsin

Feng Ai, Guo-Qing Chen, Jiu-Jian Ji, Zhi-Qiang Zhu, Zhang-Gao Le,* and Zong-Bo Xie*

*Department of Applied Chemistry, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China


In this work, the addition of 2-methylazaarenes benzylic sp3 C-H to electron-deficient olefins, catalyzed by pepsin from pig gastric mucosa was reported. A series of azaarene derivatives (1 mmol) were obtained in good yields at 60 °C for 60~72 h with 20 mg pepsin as catalyst. This is a facile method and the reaction conditions are mild, which expands the application of biocatalysis in sp3 C-H functionalization of azaarenes.

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Paper | Regular issue | Vol 98, No. 10, 2019, pp.1408-1422
Published online: 1 November, 2019
DOI: 10.3987/COM-19-14158
Fast, Solvent-Free, and Highly Efficient Synthesis of Pyrazolo[3,4-b]Pyridines Using Microwave Irradiation and Khso4 as A Reusable Green Catalyst

Jinjing Qin, Zhenhua Li,* Xiaomeng Sun, Yi Jin, and Weike Su

*Collaborative Innovation Centre of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18#, Chaowang Rd., Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310014, China


A simple, ecofriendly, and effective method was described for forming pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines from 5-aminopyrazoles and 3-formylchromones, in good to excellent yields, under microwave irradiation in solvent-free conditions using KHSO4 as a reusable catalyst. Some noteworthy features of this method were its cleanliness, short reaction time, easy work-up, and broad substrate tolerance. The catalyst was reused several times without losing activity.

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